Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy have an important role in evaluation and diagnosis of most hematological and some non hematological disorders.
Objectives: The aims of this study were to assess the value of bone marrow examination in diagnosis of hematological diseases and determination of frequency and causes of dry tap marrow .Patients and Methods: This study was prospective only and it was conducted from January 2013 to June 2013 at Hiwa and Nanakaly hospitals in Sulaymaniyah and Erbil respectively. A total number of 245 cases were underwent bone marrow examination. Touch imprint was prepared in a state of dry tap marrow. Sudan black stain was used in acute leukemia.
Results: The patients comprised 138 (56.3%) males and 107 (43.7%) females, with ages ranging from 1 to 81 years and the mean age of cases was 36.7 24 years. The most frequent clinical finding of patients underwent bone marrow examination were pallor (71.4%), followed by fever (32.2%). The main indications were present of blast cells in peripheral circulation 69 (28.2%), followed by bone marrow assessment for staging of lymphoma 37 (15.1 %). The most common diagnoses encountered were: Acute leukemia 69 (28.2%), Active marrow (negative for lymphoma) 27 (11.1%) and active marrow 24 (9.8%). The frequency of dry tap was (4.08%) and the most common causes were: acute leukemia and faulty technique (normal marrow). Conclusion: Bone marrow examination is an important diagnostic tool in the diagnosis and staging of various hematological disorders.