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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-6

Clinicohematological profile of patients with peripheral blood cytopenias in clinical practice

Department of Medicine, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rajneesh Thakur
Department of Medicine, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune - 411 040, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijh.ijh_5_18

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BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, the cytopenias may result from relatively benign causes such as viral infections and Vitamin B12/folic acid deficiency to more sinister causes such as bone marrow failure. In this study, we looked into the clinicohematological profile and etiological factors of bicytopenia and pancytopenia. OBJECTIVES: To study the etiology and clinicohematological profile in patients of peripheral blood cytopenias. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a tertiary care hospital over a period of 1 year. Cytopenias were defined as pancytopenia when there was simultaneous presence of hemoglobin <10 g/dL, total leukocyte count <4000/dL, and platelets < 100000/dL or as bicytopenia when two of the three blood cell lines were depressed. All patients who presented with pancytopenia and bicytopenia were included, and their clinicohematological profile was recorded. RESULTS: A total of 204 patients (103 males and 101 females) were diagnosed to have cytopenias. Pancytopenia was observed in 69/204 and bicytopenia was seen in 135/204 cases. The various causes of cytopenias included infections (n = 126 [61.76%]), megaloblastic anemia (MA) (n = 48 [23.52%]), drugs (n = 12 [5.8%]), hypersplenism (n = 8 [3.9%]), bone marrow failure syndromes such as aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 7 [3.4%]) and leukemias (n = 3 [1.4%]). We found a significant association between MA and pancytopenia (odds ratio [OR] = 2.47, P < 0.05) and also between infections and bicytopenia (OR = 5.8, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The present study concluded that infections and MA are the most common cause of bicytopenia and pancytopenia, respectively. The more serious disorders affecting the bone marrow constitute only <5% of all cases of cytopenias.

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