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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 11-16

Evaluation of cardiac complications in transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT) and non-transfusion dependent thalassemia (NTDT) beta thalassemia patients

1 Department of Histopathology, Rizgary Teaching Hospital, Erbil, Iskan City, Iraq
2 Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
3 Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Marah Sudad Nameq
Department of Histopathology, Rizgary Teaching Hospital, Erbil, Iskan City
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijh.ijh_12_19

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BACKGROUND: Cardiac complications are still the primary cause of mortality and a major cause of morbidity in thalassemia patients. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of cardiac involvement in TDT and NTDT beta thalassemia patients and compare between the different forms and severity in both groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 70 TDT and 50 NTDT β-thalassemia patients were recruited; their cardiac status was evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography as per the standard recommendations. Patients' cardiac status was evaluated against the causal risk factors. RESULTS: The mean serum ferritin level was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the TDT patients (4940 ± 3643 ng/mL) compared to the NTDT patients (634 ± 520 ng/mL). The mean hemoglobin was significantly (P = 0.004) higher in the TDT group (9.2 ± 0.8 vs. 8.7 ± 1.0 g/dL). The prevalence of dilated cardiomyopathy and left cardiac dysfunction in TDT was 18.6%, whereas pulmonary hypertension (PHT) was found in 30% of NTDT patients. CONCLUSION: Dilated cardiomyopathy was prevailing in the adult TDT patients, whereas PHT was the main cardiac complication in NTDT patients.

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