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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-10

The hallmarks of cancer and their therapeutic targeting in current use and clinical trials

1 Royal Stoke Cancer Centre, Stoke-on-Trent, UK
2 Department of Pathology, University of Sulaymaniyah, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq
3 Department of Hematology, Darbandkhan Hospital, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Samir Al-Bedeary
Royal Stoke Cancer Centre, Stoke-on-Trent
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijh.ijh_24_19

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Cancer represents one of the most up to date issues worldwide because of the increasing number of affected people and the impact of it on the families and health system. It is one of the new challenges that face scientists and health worker and for many years lots of research and trials were trying to help in fighting this killer. The main aim of this review is to get a general look at the new understanding of cancer pathways and possible causes of resistance and their application in trails and clinical works, this piece of work aims to highlight the importance of pathophysiology of cancer in producing an effective treatment through targeting them. This review depended mainly on reviewing articles in the PubMed and Google Scholar, through writing (The hallmark of cancer, Hanahan and Weinberg) in the PubMed, around 14 articles had been emerged and only articles produced by the same authors in the years 2001 and 2011 had been selected as they were talking about the hallmark of cancer and resistance in details. Then, each pathway was followed as we searched according to a specific pathway and its targeted therapy in the PubMed and Google Scholar. Around 60 articles and trials had proved that targeting these pathways at different levels and even trying to stop these pathways with different targets can help to control cancer, and the new studies showed very promising results and they opened the door for future studies. For long time it was believed that cancer cells share six characteristic between them to develop and growth, however the same researchers who developed the initial hallmark of cancer had added new hallmarks which are : (1) abnormal metabolic pathways, (2) evading the immune system and two enabling characteristics: (1) genome instability, and (2) inflammation. Targeting these pathways has improved survival dramatically in most of cancers.

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