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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-December 2021
Volume 10 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 91-179

Online since Wednesday, December 1, 2021

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Comparison of basophil count by Beckman Coulter UniCel DxH 800, Sysmex XN-1000, and manual microscopy in cases of suspected chronic myeloid leukemia Highly accessed article p. 91
Parul Chopra, Sunanda Bhardwaj, Anil Arora
DOI:10.4103/ijh.ijh_9_21  
INTRODUCTION: Basophilia can help stratify cases of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) into different phases and monitor response to therapy and has a significant prognostic value. It helps differentiate patients of CML from those with leukemoid reaction. Basophil counts (BCs) given by automated hematology analyzers are often not reliable. Analysis of peripheral blood picture therefore holds its importance in these cases. In this study, we aim to compare the BC in patients with suspected CML using two automated analyzers with manual microscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and sixty-nine ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid samples identified as suspected CML run on Beckman Coulter UniCel DxH 800 and Sysmex XN-1000 were analyzed for BC microscopically on Giemsa-stained peripheral smear slides by two pathologists. The mean of basophil counts obtained microscopically was considered to be standard. They were compared with BC given by automated counters using correlation analysis and Bland Altman plots. RESULTS: The age of the patients ranged from 4 to 89 years, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.2:1 (148 males; 121 females). BC obtained among both analyzers did not correlate (r2 = 0.14). Results of microscopically counted basophils correlated well among two pathologists (r2 = 0.92). Bland–Altman plots showed a mean bias of 2.2% and 2.4% by XN-1000 and DxH 800, respectively, when compared with manual counts. In the frequency distribution analysis, XN-1000 missed all 10 cases with BC >20% whereas DxH 800 missed 3/10 cases with BC >20%. In addition, in the 10%–20% range of BC, XN-1000 identified 6/22 cases whereas DxH 800 identified 12/22 cases. In the 5%–10% range of BC, XN-1000 identified 59/78 cases whereas DxH 800 identified only 43/78 cases. CONCLUSION: With lower BC, Sysmex XN-1000 and, at higher BC, Beckman Coulter DxH 800 showed better performance. However, BC from none of the analyzers can be used alone without consideration of the microscopic results. All smears should be manually counted for basophils in cases of suspected CML because of its importance in clinical management.
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Description of hemoglobin H disease mutations in alpha thalassemia patients in Sulaimani Region in Kurdistan Region, Iraq p. 97
Lena Nawzad Amin, Luqman Khalid Rasool, Beston Faiek Nore, Gaza Faraj Salih
DOI:10.4103/ijh.ijh_12_21  
CONTEXT : Hemoglobin H (HbH) disease is induced by mutations in three out of the four α- globin genes. Most commonly, mutations are either deletional or nondeletional. While some deletions (3.7 and 4.2) induce α+ thalassemia, others induce (20.5, MED, THA1, FIL) α0 thalassemia. HbH disease is a combination of both. AIMS : This study aimed to describe alpha-thalassemia (HbH disease) mutations in Suliamaniyah Province, Iraq. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Fifty-one patients with hypochromic microcytic anemia were evaluated for HbH disease. For each patient, a 2-ml venous blood sample was taken for isolating DNA. The samples were inspected for HbH disease mutations by gel electrophoresis, applying the α-Globin Strip Assay from the Vienna Lab TM commercial kit. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Microsoft Excel software was used to analyze data. RESULTS : Clinical data from complete blood count, hemoglobin (Hb)-electrophoresis, and HbH test were measured. HbH patients had significantly low levels of mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb, and Hb (HGB) compared to normal values, and all showed a positive result in the HbH test with a low level of HbA2. Both the Med double gene deletion (3.7/MED) and the 3.7 single-gene deletion were detected in 68.62% of patients. Single-gene deletion 4.2, double gene deletion 20.5 (4.2/20.5), double gene deletion Med, and point mutation α2 poly A2 (MED/α2 poly A2) were all found in 1.96% of patients. CONCLUSION : There is no difference between the phenotypes of patients with different genotypes.
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Impact of clinical staging and demographic data (age and sex) on response to treatment and survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients in Kurdistan Region of Iraq Highly accessed article p. 102
Bryar Sabah Rashid, Sana D Jalal, Ahmed K Yassin, Kawa M Hassan, Zeki A Mohamed, Zhala O Ahmed, Tavan I Mahmood, Rawand P Shamoon, Shokhan M Mustafa, Marwa Nadhim Karam, Dana A Abdullah, Shlan S Mohammad, Lara L Abdulrahman, Rozh-hat A Yousif, Basil K Abdulla, Nawsherwan S Mohammed, Hisham A Getta, Ranan K Polus, Ghanim S Numan
DOI:10.4103/ijh.ijh_11_21  
BACKGROUND: The clinical course of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is heterogeneous. Certain patients go through a brisk illness progression, and others stay alive for quite a long time without requiring treatment. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of clinical staging, age, gender, and treatment initiation on the survival of CLL patients in Kurdistan-Iraq. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 239 CLL patients from Oncology Centers from Kurdistan-Iraq were enrolled in a retrospective study from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2020. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain demographics data, presenting features, blood investigations, and imaging results. The diagnosis and treatment assessment was based on the International Workshop of CLL, and clinical staging was performed using both Rai and Binet classifications. There were two groups of patients (watch and wait) and (treated) groups. RESULTS: The median age at the diagnosis was 64 years old with a male: female ratio of 2.3:1. Eighty-three patients (34.7%) were diagnosed incidentally and about one-third of the patients presented with advanced stage, and also, 62.3% of the patients received therapy throughout the study period. The 3-year overall survival was (81.1%) (95% confidence interval 74.3%–87.9%). Of particular interest to report that advanced age, Binet Stage C, and hemoglobin <10 g/dl have adversly impacted the outcome. CONCLUSION: Despite the study limitations, the resulted CLL outcome approximates the Western countries reported figures.
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Platelet indices as an earlier and economical marker of neonatal sepsis p. 108
Arijit Majumdar, Soumali Biswas, Angshuman Jana
DOI:10.4103/ijh.ijh_15_21  
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis is a life-threatening condition which needs urgent diagnosis and proper management. Blood culture and sepsis screening are currently used methods, but their utility is limited due to delayed reporting and increased cost. However, in newborn infants, a close relationship between sepsis and thrombocytopenia and other changes in platelet indices such as increased mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) has been suggested by few studies. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the diagnostic value of platelet indices in the early detection of neonatal sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study with diagnostic testing was carried out by collecting data from medical records of neonates with neonatal sepsis who were admitted to the Neonatology Department in DR. B. C Roy PGIPS, Kolkata, over the period from January 2019 to December 2019. One hundred neonates were included in the study, 50 were proven to have sepsis by culture, and others are used as controls (apparently healthy babies). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of platelet count, MPV, and PDW in neonatal sepsis were determined using a 2 × 2 table. RESULTS: The platelet count was significantly decreased, whereas PDW and MPV were increased in septic babies (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Platelet indices can be used to diagnose neonatal sepsis as easily available and cheaper markers.
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Human parvovirus B19 among hemophilia A patients in Basrah, Southern Iraq p. 112
Murtadha A Al-khegane, Wijdan Nazar Ibrahim, Meaad Kadhum Hassan
DOI:10.4103/ijh.ijh_16_21  
BACKGROUND: Hemophilia A patients, especially if there is shortage in recombinant Factor VIII concentrate, may require occasional blood and/blood products transfusion, rendering them more susceptible to acquire infections including Parvo B19 virus (B19V). OBJECTIVES: To assess the presence of B19V viral DNA among hemophilia A patients and look for its possible association with disease-related variables. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This case–control study was carried out from October 2019 to August 2020. A total of 95 male patients with Hemophilia A and 95 healthy subjects matched for age and gender were enrolled in the study. The identification of B19V DNA was achieved using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg.) were tested by ELISA method. RESULTS: The frequency of B19V among hemophilia A patients was 13.7% compared to 6.3% among healthy subjects. None of the control group has been tested positive for HCV antibodies or HBsAg. While among patients, the frequencies of hepatitis C and B were 8.4% and 2.1%, respectively. Patients with hemophilia A and B19V have significantly higher rate of arthropathy at the time of blood sampling and blood and/blood products transfusion, especially fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) and cryoprecipitate compared to those who did not receive such blood products (92.3% vs. 50%), P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Parvovirus B19 was detected in a significant proportion of hemophilia patients especially those with a history of FFP and cryoprecipitate transfusion. The use of PCR technique is essential to detect viruses in donor's blood to avoid infection among this high-risk group.
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Impact of aberrant antigens expression on remission rate after first induction course of chemotherapy in de novo adult acute myeloid leukemia p. 118
Ghaith Abdulkarim Hussein, Ali Mohammed Jawad
DOI:10.4103/ijh.ijh_17_21  
BACKGROUND: Aberrant antigen expression is an unexpected antigen that is detected on lineage in question without alteration of lineage definition. Immunophenotypic aberrancies are thought to predict treatment outcome in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Some studies reported an adverse prognostic association, while others failed to show any association. AIM: To determine percentage of lymphoid antigens expression in adult AML patients and correlate them with hematological parameters and response to induction chemotherapy protocol. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood and bone marrow fresh samples from 81 cases of de novo AML were included in this study from November 2018 to October 2019. Hematological parameters were obtained from patients' medical records. Aberrant antigens expression was detected using flow cytometry at the diagnosis. Patients were evaluated after one cycle of chemotherapy regarding remission status. RESULTS: Out of 81 patients, 60 patients had completed data for evaluation. CD7, CD19 expression, and co-expression of CD7 and CD2 were found in 60%, 10.7%, and 10.7% of patients, respectively. Statistically significant associations were found between initial hemoglobin level and aberrant expression as patients with aberrant expression have higher hemoglobin level than patients without aberrant expression. Complete remission was achieved in 29 out of 60 patients (48.3%) with standard 3 and 7 protocol, whereas 31 patients did not achieve complete remission. There is no statistically significant association between aberrant expression and treatment response to the first cycle of chemotherapy protocol (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: CD7 is the most frequent aberrant antigen expressed in this Iraqi AML patient group. Hemoglobin level was higher in patients with aberrant expression. No significant association between aberrant expression and response to the first cycle of induction.
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Outcome of imatinib mesylate in women with child-bearing age diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia p. 123
Alaa Fadhil Alwan, Manal Ali Abdulsahib, Fatma Abdulhamza Obed, Bassam Francis Matti
DOI:10.4103/ijh.ijh_18_21  
BACKGROUND: Imatinib Mesylate (IM) is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which demonstrates great effect in the treatment of both chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. The effects of this chemotherapeutic drug on women with child bearing age, fertility, and reproductive system have been reported in some studies as case series; therefore, this study was designed to demonstrate the outcome of imatinib on females with child-bearing age. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a prospective cross-sectional study conducted in the National Center of Hematology/Mustansiriyah University in Baghdad. The study started on February 2018 and was ended in July 2020. It included 55 female patients. A questionnaire was designed to elicit the effects of imatinib mesylate on fertility and outcome of pregnancies. RESULTS: Out of 55 women diagnosed with CML in chronic phase, 13 patients were able to conceive during the study. All of them were treated with imatinib mesylate 400 mg per day before pregnancy. All of them were at least in complete cytogenetic response. Four (30.7%) pregnant patients continued treatment throughout pregnancy with uneventful pregnancy and delivery, without any congenital anomalies. other 4 (30.7%) pregnant patients received IM during 1st and 2nd trimester only and then discontinued treatment with IM. Five (38.4%) pregnant patients who received IM during 1st trimester ended with abortion (either elective or missed abortion). CONCLUSION: Treatment of CML with IM during the pregnancy has different perspectives and the data are still limited. Hence, each case decision should be individualized balancing the risk to the fetus of continuing IM versus the risk to the mother of interrupting treatment.
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Understanding mixed phenotypic acute leukemia: A conundrum of six cases with review of literature p. 127
Nimisha Dhankar, Sarika Singh, Puneet Kaur Sahi, Richa Gupta, Pallavi Sinha, Vishal Singh
DOI:10.4103/ijh.ijh_19_21  
BACKGROUND: Mixed phenotype acute leukemias (MPALs) are a heterogeneous group of rare leukemias, with an incidence of 2%–5% of all acute leukemias and varied clinical, cytogenetic, immunophenotypic, and molecular genetic features. They have been reported to have a poor prognosis, early relapse, and increased incidence of extramedullary infiltration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all the acute leukemias (ALs) diagnosed in the department of pathology over the period of August 2017 to December 2019 was done. MPAL cases were identified in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) 2016 guidelines and European Group for the Immunological Classification of Leukemias Criterion. Beckman and Coulter FC500 flow cytometer was used using AL panel with CD3, cyCD3, CD5, CD1a, CD2, CD4, CD8, and CD7 as the markers for T-cell lymphoid lineage, along with CD19, CD 79a, CD22, and CD20 for B-cell lineage and CD13, CD33, CD 14, CD64, and myeloperoxidase for myeloid lineage/monocytic lineage. Molecular analysis was also done. RESULTS: Of the 153 cases newly diagnosed cases of AL during this period, 6 fulfilled the European group for immunological characterization of acute leukemia/WHO criteria for MPAL (3.9%). The age ranged from 3 to 13 years with male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Four out of the six cases (66.6%) were assigned B-lymphoid/myeloid type and two (33.3%) were assigned B/T lymphoid. Cytogenetics was available in four out of six cases, among which three had a normal karyotype and one had Breakpoint Cluster Region- Abelson Murine Leukemia 1 (Philadelphia chromosome) (BCR-ABL) translocation (t [9;22] [q34; q11]). CONCLUSION: Distinction at the outset is of paramount importance and the role of morphology, flow cytometry compounded with cytogenetic/molecular studies cannot be denied.
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Seroprevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections among blood donors in a newly established medical college of Eastern India p. 134
Moumita Adhikary, Mohua Mazumdar, Sabuj Ghana Mukhopadhyay, Jyoti Prakash Phukan, Prosanta Kumar Sana, Bhawna Bhutoria Jain
DOI:10.4103/ijh.ijh_20_21  
INTRODUCTION: Blood transfusion is essential for saving lives in millions of patients. However, blood transfusion also carries the risk of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) if not properly screened. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To study the seroprevalence of TTI among blood donors in a blood bank with special emphasis on hepatitis B and hepatitis C. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a retrospective descriptive study for 5 years from January 2016 to December 2020. Data of all blood donors both voluntary and involuntary were analyzed to find out seroprevalence of TTIs. RESULTS: Total 43775 donors were screened, and their data were analyzed. Out of these, total 182 (0.42%) donors were found to be seropositive for TTIs. Most of the donors were positive for hepatitis B (n = 122, 0.28%) and hepatitis C (n = 51; 0.12%); however, no donor was found to be positive for malaria. CONCLUSION: In this study, we found a low prevalence rate of TTIs among blood donors. It may be due to effective screening and selection of donors as well as awareness among general public. Strict screening and regular testing are essential to keep blood transfusion safe and free from TTIs.
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Long-term survival after fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab treatment in previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients p. 139
Shokhan Mohammad Mustafa, Ahmed Khudair Yassin, Nawsherwan S Mohammed, Rawand P Shamoon, Marwa N Karam, Shlan S Mohammad, Lara Lateef Abdulrahman, Zhalla O Ahmed, Bryar Sabah Rashid, Tavan I Mahmood, Rozhhat A Yousif, Kawa M Hasan, Zeki A Mohamed, Hisham A Getta, Sana D Jalal, Dana A Abdullah, Basil K Abdulla, Ghanim S Numan, Ranan Karadagh
DOI:10.4103/ijh.ijh_22_21  
BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by a lower incidence rate in Iraq and Kurdistan as compared to Western countries. However, a good prognosis of CLL is dependable on diagnosis, risk stratification, and a better choice of an appropriate treatment regimen. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the effectiveness of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) regimen in comparison to other chemotherapy regimens in the management of patients with CLL in Kurdistan region/Iraq. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review study carried out in three cancer centers in the Kurdistan region of Iraq for the duration of 10 years through the period from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2019, on 152 CLL patients. CLL was diagnosed according to the International Workshop on CLL. The treatment of CLL patients was either by FCR chemo-immunotherapy regimen or other chemotherapies. RESULTS: The FCR chemo-immunotherapy was the treatment of 38.8% of CLL patients, while 61.2% of CLL patients were treated by other chemotherapies. There was a significant association between younger age patients and the use FCR chemo-immunotherapy (P = 0.001). There was a significant association between a complete response and treatment by FCR chemo-immunotherapy (P = 0.02). The mean overall survival duration and progression-free survival of CLL patients treated by FCR chemo-immunotherapy were significantly longer than the mean survival time of CLL patients treated by other chemotherapies (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Complete response and survival of CLL patients treated by FCR chemo-immunotherapy were better than the complete response and survival of CLL patients treated by other chemotherapies.
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The significance of Rai and Binet clinical staging on the survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients in the Kurdistan region of Iraq p. 146
Shlan S Muhammad, Ahmed Khudair Yassin, Rawand P Shamoon, Nawsherwan S Mohammed, Marwa Nadhim Nadhim, Kawa M Hassan, Bryar Sabah Rashid, Shokhan M Mohammad, Ranan karadagh, Ghanim S Numan, Lara Lateef Abdulrahman, Sana D Jalal, Zhala O Ahmed, Hisham A Getta, Tavan I Mahmood, Basil K Abdulla, Dana A Abdullah, Rozh-hat A Yousif, Zeki A Mohamed
DOI:10.4103/ijh.ijh_23_21  
BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is an uncommon type of leukemia in Iraq, although many reported cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the Iraqi Kurdistan region are of high risk stage. Staging of chronic lymphocytic leukemia is essential in treatment planning and for disease prognosis. the aims of this study were to find out the difference in patients' survival with early and late clinical stages, and to evaluate CLL outcome in relation to the Rai and Binet staging. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional analysis studied 250 patients, 170 male and 80 female, with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who were registered in three hemato-oncology centers in Iraqi Kurdistan for the last 10 years. The diagnosis of the disease was made according to the guideline of the International Workshop Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia update of the National Cancer Institute. The patients' clinical staging was determined by a senior hematologist based on the clinical and laboratory findings. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 63(±11.8) years, 40% were >65 years. The median survival was 27 months. Elderly patients >65 years had significantly lower mean survival. The Rai staging was distributed as follows: stage 0 (24.8%), stage I (12.8%), stage II (30.8%), stage III (9.6%) and stage IV (22%). The median survival was significantly higher among patients with Rai stage 0 comparing to patients with advanced stages (P<0.001). The Binet stage was distributed as follows: stage A (47.2%), stage B (26.4%) and stage C (26.4%). The median patients' survival was significantly higher among patients with Binet stage A comparing to those with Binet stage C (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The survival of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia strongly related to the clinical stages of both staging systems.
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Assessment of FVIII, D-dimer, S. ferritin, and lactate dehydrogenase in hospitalized patients with 2019 coronavirus disease p. 152
Enaam Muhsin Hameed Al-Taie, Hind Shaker Al-Mamoori
DOI:10.4103/ijh.ijh_24_21  
BACKGROUND: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a coronavirus that can produce a variety of symptoms, ranging from asymptomatic carrier status to severe respiratory failure, multiple organ dysfunction, and death, it might be associated with hypercoagulability as increase in coagulation factor 8 (FVIII). OBJECTIVES: This study was carried out to investigate markers of hypercoaguablility (factor VIII activity, D-Dimer) in hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19, evaluation of certain markers of inflammation (S. ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], C-reactive protein [CRP], and erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]) and correlate those markers with each other. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 70 adult hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Blood samples were obtained for FVIII, D. dimer, and ESR. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23 and Microsoft Office Excel 2010. RESULTS: The mean age of enrolled 70 patients was 60.22 ± 14.43 years. 44 (62.9%) of patients had neutrophilia and lymphopenia was seen in 41 (58.6%). High ratio of N/L was seen in 66 (94.3%). Low count of eosinophil was seen in 44 (62.9%), high LDH level was seen at 57 (81.4%). Regarding serum ferritin, high level was seen 64 (91.4%) and high level of CRP was seen in 56 (80%). High level of ESR was seen in 64 (91.4%) and high level of D. dimer was seen in 55 (78.6%), while the high level of FVIII was seen in 30 (42.9%) and low FVIII level was seen in 4 (5.7%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients had neutrophilia, lymphopenia, high N/L ratio, and eosinopenia. Markers of inflammation (S. ferritin, LDH, CRP, and ESR), which were elevated. FVIII level and D. dimer were elevated in the majority of patients with COVID-19. Few of the patients were had a low level of FVIII, which might be related to abnormal function of the liver or might be attributed to autoantibodies directed against FVIII.
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The pattern of bone marrow involvement among chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and its impact on the disease outcome in Kurdistan Region of Iraq p. 158
Marwa Nadhim Karam, Kawa M Hasan, Nawsherwan S Mohammed, Ahmed K Yassin, Shokhan Mohammad Mustafa, Lara Lateef Abdulrahman, Ranan K Polis, Ghanim S Numan, Shlan S Mohammed, Rawand P Shamoon, Bryar Sabah Rashid, Sana D Jalal, Rozhhat A Yousif, Zeki A Mohamed, Tavan I Mahmood, Basil K Abdulla, Dana A Abdullah, Zhalla O Ahmed1, Hisham A Getta
DOI:10.4103/ijh.ijh_27_21  
OBJECTIVES : There are the variable degrees of bone marrow (BM) infiltration patterns in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Four BM patterns: Interstitial, nodular, mixed, and diffuse patterns were identified. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of BM infiltration patterns on the disease outcome among CLL patients in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional, descriptive, retrospective involved 106 patients with CLL disease. The data are collected in the Kurdistan region of Iraq (including Erbil, Sulaymaniyah, and Duhok) cancer centers. Through the period from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2019. BM histopathology study of all patients was assessed and correlated with the disease outcome. RESULTS: Fifty-three (50.0%) patients had interstitial BM patterns, 17 (16.0%) had nodular BM pattern, 14 (13.2%) had mixed BM patterns, and 22 (20.8%) had diffuse BM pattern. The results showed that patients with interstitial, nodular, and mixed BM patterns had a superior overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rate than diffuse BM pattern. Kaplan–Meier curve illustrates that our CLL patients with interstitial BM patterns had a better mean OS rate (44.0 months) than diffuse BM pattern with a mean of (23.2 months). As well as for PFS, the mean was (35.7 months) for the interstitial BM patterns and (17.6 months) for diffuse BM pattern. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that the BM involvement patterns have a prognostic value in our CLL patients and provide more reliable information regarding the clinical outcome.
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Improving detection rates of suspected acute transfusion reactions through active surveillance p. 165
Maha Abdulrazak Badawi, Rakan Saaty, Sarah Talal Altayyari, Roaa Khalil, Feras Moria, Galila Zaher, Salwa Alnajjar, Salwa Ibrahim Hindawi
DOI:10.4103/ijh.ijh_31_21  
BACKGROUND: Tracking transfusion reactions is essential to improve patient safety. Under-reporting of transfusion reactions was suspected in our institution. To evaluate this phenomenon, we followed an active surveillance protocol for transfusion reactions for 3 months in 2016 and compared transfusion reaction rates during that period with 2015 and 2017. METHODS: The study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital over 3 months in 2016. Investigators visited hospital units and collected data on all patients who received a transfusion in the preceding 24 h. Further details were obtained about all cases that are suspected to have had a transfusion reaction. Transfusion reactions were defined according to the definitions provided by National Healthcare Safety Network Biovigilance Component Hemovigilance Module Surveillance Protocol 2016. Rates that were obtained through active surveillance were compared through appropriate statistical methods with transfusion reaction rates obtained through passive reporting from 2015 and 2017. RESULTS: During the study period, a total of 47 transfusion reactions were captured through active surveillance and passive reporting (transfusion reaction rate 0.79%). There was a statistically significant difference between these rates in comparison with rates detected in similar months from 2015 (0.26%) and 2017 (0.17%). CONCLUSIONS: Active surveillance for transfusion reactions is an effective method for improving rates of the detection of suspected transfusion reactions. The phenomenon of under-reporting of transfusion reactions requires thorough evaluation by transfusion medicine professionals to introduce targeted solutions and improve reporting rates.
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Classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the Middle Euphrates Region of Iraq according to the World Health Organization classification p. 170
Ahmed Mjali, Alyaa Hadi Oudah, Haider Hasan Jaleel Al-Shammari, Nareen Tawfeeq Abbas
DOI:10.4103/ijh.ijh_34_21  
BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patterns vary worldwide in relation to demographic and environmental factors. AIM: The objective of our study was to identify subtypes of NHL in the Middle Euphrates Region of Iraq according to the World Health Organization (WHO) modified classification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study was carried out at Al-Hussein Cancer Center in Karbala, Iraq, on 385 patients diagnosed with NHL between January 2012 and August 2020. Patient ages ranged between 1 and 96 years. They included 204 males and 181 females. All patients were diagnosed by tissue biopsy, confirmed by immunohistochemistry markers, and classified according to WHO classification. Any patient with inconclusive results was excluded from the study. RESULTS: Among total NHL patients, males were (53%) and females were (47%) with a male: female ratio of (1.12:1). B-cell lymphoma was diagnosed in (92.47%) and T cell lymphoma in (7.53%). Diffuse large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) was the most frequent B-cell subtype (54.02%) followed by Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) (14.02%), while peripheral T-cell lymphoma was the most common T-cell subtype (2.08%). About (61.82%) of patients were nodal, and (38.18%) were extranodal. The intestine was the most frequent extranodal site (34.69%). CONCLUSION: Among our patients, there were high frequencies of DLBCL, extra nodal primaries and intestinal BL. Follicular lymphoma and small lymphocytic lymphoma were uncommon in our region. These results were similar to the Middle Eastern NHL patterns but differed from the western patterns.
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CASE SERIES Top

The importance of testing for secretor status of ABH antigens: A case series p. 176
Soumee Banerjee, Vanamala Anand Alwar, Sitalakshmi Subramanian
DOI:10.4103/ijh.ijh_25_21  
While simple serological tests such as forward and reverse grouping can help identify rare phenotypes, their Confirmation is to be done with a battery of other serological tests including adsorption elution and nonserological tests such as saliva testing for secretor status. Two cases of H-deficient secretor state (para-Bombay) and one case of a weak B phenotype are presented here highlighting the importance of nonserological tests. Case 1: A 50-year-old male who is a repeat blood donor, with no significant history, had “O positive” by forward grouping, “B” by reverse, and no reaction with anti-AB antisera or anti-H lectin. Adsorption elution showed the presence of weak B antigen and saliva testing confirmed secretor status for B and H antigen. Case 2: A 25-year-old primigravida, with no significant history, had “O positive” by forward grouping, “B” by reverse, and no reaction with anti-AB antisera or anti-H lectin. However, adsorption elution showed the absence of any antigen on RBCs. The saliva testing confirmed secretor status for B and H antigen. Both of them were compatible (Coomb's major and minor) with “B” and “O” units and were grouped as para-Bombay B. Para-Bombay phenotypes can present with complete or partial suppression of ABH antigens and nonserological tests are valuable in their diagnosis. Case 3: A 27-year-old first-time blood donor, with no significant history, also had “O Positive” by forward grouping, “B” by reverse grouping, and no reaction with anti-AB antisera. Furthermore, 3+ reaction with anti-H lectin was noted. Saliva testing confirmed secretor status for B and H antigens. He was also compatible with “B” and “O” units and was grouped as “Weak B.” Further classification was not possible as adsorption-elution tests could not be done.
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